With bumper crops of fully ripened tomatoes piled on kitchens counters, the annual quest for imaginative and delicious recipes begins anew. In “The Raw and The Cooked: Adventures of A Roving Gourmand” (Grove Press, 2001), the late poet, novelist and food-and-wine writer Jim Harrison (pictured above, 1937-2016) provides an innovative solution with a twist on everybody’s old favorite, spaghetti and meatballs.
Harrison’s entertaining essay titled “Meatballs” recounts his young adulthood as a proverbial “starving artist” in the late 1950s in New York City. Using his trademark full-throttle prose and vivid storytelling, he recalls developing a passion for dining at Romeo’s Spaghetti Parlor, “where a large bowl of spaghetti with marinara sauce was forty cents; fifteen cents more afforded you a meatball.”
“At odd times I still love spaghetti and meatballs,” he wrote. “It is soul food, a balm, a food nostrum that helps me understand the often questionable arc of my life.”
Instead of going out to a restaurant, Harrison advised preparing the dish at home using fresh tomatoes. His “Roasted Tomato Sauce with Fresh Herbs” recipe showcases a style rarely seen in America’s myriad Italian restaurants. He roasted the tomatoes in the oven rather than stewing them on the stove.
Put a liberal amount of olive oil in a baking pan. Then cut fresh tomatoes in quarters and puts them in the pan. In the spirit of the season, feel free to chop as many tomatoes as you’d like to use up, and don’t hesitate throwing in a few juicy yellow gems if it suits your fancy. Mini yellow tomatoes’ relatively low acidity allows their sweetness to shine.
Sprinkle the tomatoes “liberally” with chopped garlic, fresh basil and thyme. Harrison admitted having a “heavy hand” on garlic. For reasons both personal and gastronomic, Harrison once used 33 cloves for a single batch of sauce. You have to admire how that man rolled.
Cook the mixture for about 90 minutes at 325 degrees in the oven until the tomatoes roast thoroughly and almost liquefy. Chop any remaining tomato chunks.
Harrison recommends making homemade meatballs, certainly good advice. Mildred, my late mother was born in Arnold, Pennsylvania from, French, Beligian, German and Irish stock. But after marrying into my father’s southern Italian family, my Grandmother Libra from Montella near Naples, Italy, taught Mildred to make meatballs from scratch.
Simply blend 1/3 pound each of ground beef, ground veal and ground pork with 1 and 1/2 cups of bread crumbs, two cloves of minced garlic, one beaten egg, chopped parsley, salt and pepper. Form the meat into balls, and lightly fry the meatballs in olive oil. Then drain them on a paper towel before chucking them into the sauce to roast for the last 15 minutes.
Serve the sauce with tagliatelle pasta cooked al dente. These long, thin egg noodles soak up the flavors particularly well.
Serve the dish with one of Jim Harrison’s favorite southern Rhône red wines–and, I might add, my absolute favorite southern Rhône red–the Domaine du Cayron, Gigondas. Michel Faraud and his daughters–Delphine, Sandrine and Rosalind—make this untamed, delicious red from old vine Grenache, Syrah and Mourvèdre with a splash of Carignan. Fermented with stems and all with native yeasts in concrete vats, the wine then ages in large neutral foudres.
Year after year this Gigondas delivers enchanting aromas of wild lavender, thyme and ripe black fruits. Marvelous freshness and firm tannins age structure. It’s about as natural and delicious as it comes.
As his health rapidly failed in the last months of his life in 2016, Harrison wrote a work of fiction entitled The Ancient Minstrel and returned to the topic of spaghetti and meatballs.
‘It didn’t work to try to write about sex, doom, death, time, and the cosmos,” one of Harrison’s character observed, “when you were thinking about a massive plate of spaghetti and meatballs.”
Words to ponder over a plate of pasta with homemade fresh tomato sauce, homemade meatballs and a glass of Gigondas.
Among Burgundy’s many delicious wines, those from Chambolle-Musigny frequently offer the most alluring and enchanting delights especially in outstanding vintages. The best examples balance delicate, complex red fruit aromas and ripe, transparent flavors with uplifting freshness and silky, elegant tannins. Drinking and enjoying four terrific Chambolle wines at a recent lunch proved the point convincingly. Of the highlighted producers, ironically only Fred Mugnier operates in the village, whereas Serge Groffier, the Rion’s and Bruno Clair work out of neighboring villages.
The delicious 2002 Domaine Robert Groffier Père & Fils, Chambolle-Musigny “Les Amoureuses” 1er cru led the pack as a sheer delight. Intoxicating, beautiful red fruit and earthy aromas gave way to pure ripe red fruit with ample concentration. A perfect vein of fresh acidity and elegant tannins carried through the long, long finish. This is a completely seamless and marvelous wine from 2002, a vintage where the reds have finally begun shedding austerity in favor of supple flesh. Kudos to dedicated winegrower Serge Groffier who produced the wine working with his equally talented son, Nicolas, who now directs the domaine located in Morey-Saint-Denis. The vineyard “Les Amoureuses,” meaning “The Lovers” is certainly one of Burgundy’s most beguiling names. The vineyard lies just below the famed Musigny Grand cru as shown on the map at the bottom of the story.
The 2002DomaineJacques-Frédéric Mugnier, Chambolle-Musigny “Les Fuées” 1er cru and 2005 Domaine Daniel Rion et Fils “Les Beaux-Bruns” followed closely behind.
Fred Mugnier occupies a handsome, three story white stone manor house located in an enclosed park-like setting right in the village of Chambolle. For his wines, he favors an understated, highly finessed style without brute extraction. The irresistible, seductive 2002Chambolle-Musigny “Les Fuées” 1er cru displayed Mugnier’s trademark style perfectly. Pretty red fruit and floral aromas opened in the glass leading to juicy, elegant red fruit flavors layered in medium concentration. Bright acidity and smooth seamless tannins carried the long finish. It is an incredibly silky, delicious wine with a delicacy uncommon in the 2002 vintage
The Rion Family resides in the village of Premeaux-Prissey down Route 74 south of Chambolle. Their parcel in Chambolle-Musigny “Les Beaux-Bruns” lies down slope from the premier crus and has relatively deep soils as well as a warmer microclimate. This creates a richer style wine as shown by the Rion’s absolutely delicious, beautifully balanced example from 2005. The ruby color unfolded dark red fruit aromas with pleasant spicy touches. Ripe, juicy dark red fruit flavors layered with fresh acidity and silky, seamless tannins. Many wines from the warm 2005 vintage lack proper balance, but this wine offered everything you hope to find in well made, delectable red Burgundy.
Winegrower Bruno Clair and winemaker Philippe Brun. Clair used fruit from well placed village level vines to produce the 2005 Domaine Bruno Clair, Chambolle-Musigny“Les Veroilles,” a delicious, masterful effort. Clair planted the Pinot Noir vines in 1989 on two previously abandoned plots.. Ripe, pure red fruits jump from the glass with just a hint of pleasant earthiness. Intense, vibrant red fruit flavors characteristic of the warm 2005 vintage balance with refreshing mineral notes and precise, silky tannins through a long, fruity finish. The wine made a perfect complement to classic Cuisses des Grenouilles–lightly breaded frogs sauteed in butter and garlic. Bruno Clairhas his cellar in Marsannay, up the D74 main thoroughfare north of Chambolle. He also produces outstanding Gevrey-Chambertins including an incredibly beautiful wine from Chambertin Clos-de-Bèze Grand Cru where two thirds of his vines date from 1912!
Eighteenth century French philosopher Voltaire suggested “Il faut cultiver notre jardin”—“We must cultivate our garden”—even in the face of life’s complications and chaos. Burgundy winegrower Jean-Claude Rateau takes Voltaire’s advice to heart. Since graduating from Beaune’s Lycée Viticole in the late 1970’s, he has carefully cultivated his vineyards very much like a garden using organic and biodynamic methods requiring dedicated manual labor.
Today his vital soils and sturdy vines render superb grapes which Rateau uses to produce exhilarating red and white Burgundies with tremendous purity and freshness. Meanwhile as one of the 1995 founders and current President of the Groupement d’Étude et de Suivi des Terroirs (“G.E.S.T.”), he is committed to studying and preserving Burgundy’s unique terroirs. Rateau and other “veterans” readily exchange knowledge with young winegrowing colleagues. The goal is to continue positive changes by training the new generation on the importance of maintaining organic materials in Burgundy’s precious soils.
On a cool, but brilliantly sunny day last May, Rateau provided a close look at his magnificent vineyards coming into bloom. Down the road from his cave, we stop at Beaune “Les Coucherias” 1er cru, a semi-circular vineyard set on a gentle slope where a quarry formerly operated. Rateau has special sentiment for this vineyard that faces directly south.
“It has the best exposure in Beaune with early morning sun and the last rays of sunshine each evening,” says Rateau who planted the vineyard after noted French agronomist Claude Bourguignon analyzed the soils.
“Claude found the red clay soils rich in iron and limestone very similar to Le Montrachet Grand Cru,” Rateau recalls. “So I planted Chardonnay on double cordon trellis which creates good air flow in the vines.”
Instead of applying synthetic chemicals, Rateau relies on natural organic composts and biodynamic teas to activate the soils while also nurturing and strengthening the vines. Vital vines sink deep roots, Rateau notes, to pick up nutrients and critical minerality.
“Les Coucherias gives a rich, deep wine with lots ripeness and freshness,” he adds. “C’est beau, n’est-ce pas?”
It is indeed beautiful.
Next, we drive into the hills to the west of Beaune to visit the Hautes-Côtes de Beaune vineyards. Deer and wild boar roam the scenic wooded hillsides where black truffles grow in abundance. In recent years increasing numbers of vignerons in the appellation have followed Rateau’s lead by embracing organic viticulture methods. The brown loamy soils of their vineyards teem with green grasses and colorful flowers standing in stark contrast to the dried out, eroded hard surfaces of neighboring vineyards treated with synthetic chemicals.
“It is possible to make really good wines from the Hautes-Côtes de Beaune, but it takes a lot of careful work,” Rateau notes.
He uses the “U” shaped lyre trellis system developed by Dr. Alain Corbonneau in Bordeaux. The vines stand about one meter tall and then branch onto two cordons.
“In my opinion the lyre is the best method for viticulture,” Rateau says. “The vines have plenty of foliage which is all active.”
Active foliage delivers better photosynthesis to ripen fruit consistently which traditionally has been a big challenge in the Hautes-Côtes. And since the grape bunches hang below the leaves, Rateau says the foliage helps protect the fruit from sunburn. In addition, the lyre system exposes the bunches to more wind which helps combat mildew and fungus.
“It is a very intelligent way to grow grapes, and I like it very much,” Rateau adds. “It optimizes the health of the grapes. But it a demanding mode, requiring a lot of care, especially to control the yield. And it is difficult to work manually since the vine leans outwards. But it is the most beautiful method.”
The lyre system has detractors. Grape yields can be high if left unchecked. Plus the vine density is lower than permitted under bureaucratic rules. But with Rateau’s attentive biodynamic approach, his high quality Hautes-Côtes de Beaune white and red wines offer terrific, easy drinking pleasure that speaks for itself.
Meanwhile as President of “G.E.S.T.”, Rateau collaborates with other winegrowers in exploring new methods for training vines.
“We are working towards a high-vine, high-density system with spacing at two meters similar to Alsace,” Rateau says. “For the regional Bourgogne appellation and Hautes-Côtes appellations, this could eventually replace restrictive low vines and very wide vines on lyres. The goal is to have a more ergonomic system with better quality, lower yields, lower cost, and more ecological balance.”
On the way to see Rateau’s premier cru vineyards, we pass another important “G.E.S.T.” project, the Mont Battois Vine Conservatory northwest of Beaune. In collaboration with the Association Technique Viticole de Bourgogne which owns the parcel, Rateau and his colleagues envision planting fifty-two ancient vine varieties including the well known Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, Aligoté and Gamey plus more obscure vines such as César, Tressot Blanc, Tressot Panaché, and Troyen. The first twenty-two plantings occurred in April 2016.
“These vines are our heritage and history,” Rateau says. “They are rustic varieties more resistant to diseases. The plantings provide a genetic reservoir if anybody wants to recreate grape varieties close to those of today. These varieties produce less alcohol and have more acidity which today has potential importance in relation to global warming.”
Next we stop at the beautiful Beaune “Les Bressandes” 1er cru. Here Rateau’s vigorous Pinot Noir vines toil in clay and limestone soils interspersed with distinctive grèzes litées, a scree of limestone pebbles formed by the erosion of an ancient rocky cliff. The steeply sloping vineyard faces directly to the East and covers about 88 acres with 40 different owners.
“This is a very warm vineyard. When it snows, it melts first here,” Rateau notes.”The vine roots decent very deeply here, and the terroir creates red wines with lots of depth.”
Rateau holds a scoop of the rich soil to his nose. The sweet, earthy aromas and texture brings a bright smile to his face as he exhales.
“Ah, c’est du vrai sol!l,” he notes. It’s “true soil” resulting from over thirty years of working by hand without synthetic chemicals. ECOCERT certifies all of his vineyards as organically cultivated, and Rateau is seeking Biodyvin’s certification of his biodynamic vineyard practices.
“When I started I was virtually alone in pursuing organic farming,” he recalls. “Today over fifteen percent of Burgundy growers in the Côte-d’Or are biologique and that’s a great change and progress.”
To encourage more growers to focus on preserving vital, lively soils, each October, Rateau and other experienced winegrowers taste wines from younger growers under forty years old.
‘We taste the wines “blind” without knowing who made each bottle, and then we give our comments,’ he notes. “It’s the best way to discover and encourage promising new growers. If you search, you can still good wines and good value in Burgundy because of the positive changes happening these days in our vineyard soils.”
In the cellar, Rateau minimizes interventions during fermentation and élevage. He relies only on wild yeasts, and, depending on the vintage and terroir, he ferments his red wines with whole grape bunches including stems. Then the wines–both whites and reds–age in used barrels ranging from three to ten years old. Bottling occurs with minimal additions of sulfites.
Because Rateau sells seventy five percent of his wines to French caviste shops and to restaurants in Paris and around France, he is not well known in the United States. But Chambers Street Wines in Manhattan consistently offers a good selection each year. And Rateau’s prices offer terrific value for the quality.
His wines faithfully reflect each terroir and have purity of fruit, freshness and unforced, charming personality. These “old school,” elegant Burgundies favor finesse and juicy, drinking pleasure over extreme concentration and showy power. Every passionate Burgundy should seek them out. The following wines were tasted from bottles in Rateau’s cellar in May, 2017:
2015 Jean-Claude Hautes-Côtes de Beaune Blanc: Made from Chardonnay growing on Lyre trellises in clay and limestone soils on the sunny, east facing hillsides over the hill from Beaune. The wine has fresh citrus and pear aromas and earthy touches.The pure, fruity flavors balance with racy acidity and fresh minerality through the long, dry finish. Delicious!
2015 Jean-Claude Rateau Hautes-Côtes-de-Beaune Pinot Blanc: Made from Pinot Blanc, a variety that Rateau notes is more widely planted in Burgundy than most consumers may realize. It also has fresh, clean aromas of pears, peaches and apples opening in to round, ripe fruity flavors balanced with Rateau’s trademark acidity and minerality..
2015 Jean-Claude Rateau Beaune “Clos des Mariages”: This is made from an unique blend of late harvested Chardonnay (75%), Pinot Blanc (10%) and Beurot (a.k.a., Pinot Gris) (15%) grown near Rateau’s home in Beaune. The wine has fresh aromas of grapefruit with notes of brown spices, and on the palate it has more concentration than the first two white wines. Clean, fresh finish.
2015 Jean-Claude Rateau Beaune “Les Coucherias” 1er Cru: The wine has complex aromas of pears and citrus with floral notes and a decided touch of earthiness. The rich, ripe flavors of citrus, melon and honey layer in pronounced acidity and a mineral laden dry finish. Age for 3 to 5 years before drinking.
Red Wines: 2015 Jean-Claude Hautes-Côtes de BeauneRouge: A juicy, fresh and easy drinking red from from 50 year old vines in clay, limestone and marne soils in the heights above Beaune. Charming light ruby robe, gorgeous red cherry and spice aromas; juicy, fresh red fruit with lovely transparency; light concentration balanced with zesty acidity and mineral notes; delicious fruity finish with terrific freshness. Beautiful. Good value too. Bien qualité/prix.Tasted chez DeSimone as well. 2015 Jean-Claude Rateau Beaune“Les Prévoles”:: Made from Pinot Noir grapes growing in a well placed lieu-dit below Beaune “Chouacheux” 1er Cru. Rateau fermented the wine with 100% whole bunches to achieve terrific finesse and pure, transparent red fruit. Lovely red cherry and griotte flavors unfold with bracing, delicious acidity and elegant tannins.Decanting it for an hour or so at home should develop more fleshy notes and round out the delicious red fruit. 2015 Jean-Claude Rateau Gevrey-Chambertin: Rateau’s only red from the Côte-de-Nuits made from Pinot Noir growing in two lieu-dits near Grand Cru and 1er Crues climats. The wine offers complex, aromatic black fruits and floral notes with pleasant earthy hints. The dark red fruit layer in a rich, concentrated body balanced with fresh acidity and smooth tannins. Pronounced minerallity balances the fruity, elegant finish. 2015 Jean-Claude Rateau Beaune “Les Reversées” 1er Cru: Made from older Pinot Noir growing in cool limestone soils also rich in red iron deposits.The wine offers pure strawberry red fruit aromas with floral hints a touch of pleasant earthiness. Red red fruit layers in rich, fresh acidity and moderate concentration. Smooth, refined tannins add balance to long, fruity finish. Delicious. 2015 Jean-Claude Rateau Beaune“Les Bressandes” 1er Cru: Made from Rateau’s warmest vineyard in a particularly ripe vintage. Fresh, frank raspberry aromas and brown spice hints open to ripe, yet refreshing red fruit flavors with medium body and lovely elegant tannins. A juicy delight with superb balance that will improve in bottle for years to come. Lovely, delicious wine.
Growing up in the 70’s and 80’s in Burgundy’s Mâcon region, Frédéric Ménager dreamed of one day ripping guitar solos in a rock and roll band. His family had more immediate ideas, and so Ménager began the long, hard quest to become a chef in France. He worked in Paris and at Restaurant Alain Chapel (with a Michelin-three star rating) before eventually becoming executive chef at Castel de Très Girard, a respected gastronomic restaurant in Morey-Saint-Denis, Burgundy.
But as a rocker at heart with an urge for creative independence, Ménager made a life changing decision to leave the restaurant in 2002. He and his wife, Eva, took a major risk by buying La Ferme de la Ruchotte, a farm where Ménager could chart his own unique path as a poultry breeder and part-time chef. Fifteen years later Ménager has emerged as a respected champion of the “farm to plate” model not only in Burgundy, but around France and internationally. And his passion for heavy metal, hard rock, popular and classical music flourishes stronger than ever.
The 12.5 acre La Ferme de la Ruchotte lies at the end of a serpentine road on top of a hill above the village of Bligny-sur-Ouche, 25 kilometers from Beaune. The farm provides a free-range paradise for Ménager’s passion and specialty—chickens, coqs vierges, and poulardes descended from colorful, ancient French lines such as the Gaulloise Dorée, Barbezieux, Le Mans, La Flèche, and Coucou de Rennes. He also raises rare, ancient breeds of turkeys, guinea fowl, and ducks—over 2,000 poultry in all—along with ten rugged Solognot sheep and twenty black Gascon pigs. One llama, an ostrich, a big black dog and various felines keep them all company. For good measure, Ménager tends an extensive potager garden with greens, carrots, leeks, radishes, celery, beets, peppers….you name it. He also grows diverse fruits.
Everything thrives in the farm’s self-contained, organic environment which is certified by the bright green and white “AB”—Agriculture Biologique—sign at the entrance. Vegetables and fruits grow without synthetic chemical fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides. Animals breed and mature without synthetic antibiotics and genetically modified methods. Ménager sees a critical rapport between a healthy, uncontaminated farm and high quality poultry.
“Organic farming guarantees a healthy diet to the animals and a life in the best conditions,” he says. “The breeding time is also longer, and the slaughter is done according to very precise criteria. Ultimately the product is healthier and therefore better for the consumer.”
“A chicken of quality must have firm and muscular flesh, be flavorful and properly fattened,” Ménager adds. “The skin must be fine and well oiled.”
Chefs from Michelin-starred restaurants around Burgundy covet Ménager’s tasty bounty, but he also sells to more casual, but excellent culinary destinations such as Caves Madelaine Beaune. Individual customers order poultry for holidays and special occasions. And on Saturdays and Sundays only, Ménager and Eva welcome guests by reservation into their home for a lunchtime meal unlike any other.
On a Sunday in May, Eva greets guests warmly into the cheerfully decorated farmhouse dining room. Inviting aromas fill the snug room while Fred works in the well appointed professional kitchen just through an open doorway. A chalkboard near the fire place features the fixed menu which this day offers Poule en Gelée with new Spring greens, Coq au Vin with Spring vegetables, cheese, and a dessert of chocolate ice cream, gingerbread and gaufrette, a wafer thin, slightly sweet cone.
Homemade, crusty bread and silky pork rillettes await guests who sit at either a large communal table or several smaller tables. My wife and I sat at the communal table next to a couple of American restaurant owners and sommeliers on one side. On our other side sat organic/biodynamic winegrower Yann Durieux with his wife and charming, young daughter. The affable Durieux worked and trained with some of Burgundy’s leading “bio” wine producers. His own domaine, Recrue des Sens, has a rapidly growing reputation for producing deliciously pure and fresh Hautes-Côtes de Nuits wines. Dureiux makes wines “naturally” with little intervention and no added sulfites.
Back in the kitchen Ménager plates the first course as the sounds of AC/DC’s hard rock anthems play at modest volume. The chef is a picture of concentration. The music helps keep him focused and inspired.
“Music remains indispensable and inseparable in my life,’ says Ménager who recalls Django Reinhardt’s distinctive, unforgettable guitar playing in his childhood. “Then I took a slap listening to Led Zeppelin’s first album. Jimmy Page remains an incomparable genius. I also remain very impressed by Elvis’ incredible voice, and the unique Steven Tyler”
Other favorites on his eclectic playlist include Serge Gainsbourg, Van Halen’s first album, Jimi Hendrix, Ozzy Osbourne, the Beatles, Bach, Mozart and Vivaldi.
Black Label Society lead man Zakk Wylde, a Bayonne, New Jersey native whom Ménager has met twice, also sits atop the list. “A man of great kindness who has immense respect for his fans.” Ménager notes.
He credits Chef Philippe Jousse at Restaurant Alain Chapel with teaching hard work, commitment and discipline as values essential for a chef to show similar respect for dinner guests.
“At Restaurant Alain Chapel I learned that good food is not possible without good products,” Ménager recalls. “In the kitchen I learned camaraderie and the great techniques of French cooking. Philippe Jousse remains for me the greatest technician.”
As the chef at Castel de Très Girard, Ménager constantly searched for quality products to produce quality food. After starting to raise chickens as a hobby, a fellow poultry breeder introduced him to France’s “ancient races.”
“I raised, ate and discovered something exceptional. The chickens just turned my life upside down!” Ménager says.
He and his wife took the plunge at La Ferme de la Ruchotte unsure of the economic viability of their “farm to plate” model. But they envisioned potential benefits, too.
“We decided to reorient our lives to a more ethical ideal with more autonomy and independence,” he recalls. “I try to show my clients and guests that self-sufficiency is possible. You no longer have to depend on big agribusiness.”
By controlling the production channel from birth of the animals through slaughter, Ménager maintains the genetic diversity that is critical to quality.
“Year after year I have observed and tasted my animals. We now know how to make a great chicken, but work still remains to be done,” he says. “Genetic diversity remains the most important thing in order to maintain a livestock with a strong capacity to adapt to its environment.”
At our Sunday lunch, the succulent Coq au Vin and vegetables are a revelation. The bird’s firm, flavorful dark meat and rich sauce marry seamlessly. The fresh Spring vegetables cooked to perfection add savory accents. It is a delicious, hearty course where traditional simplicity allows sublime ingredients to hold center stage.
On the wine list, Ménager offers bottles made primarily from organically cultivated grapes. Well known producers such Domaine des Comtes Lafon and Domaine Dujac jump out. But lesser known yet terrific producers such as Yann Durieux at Recrue des Sens and Marc Rougeot at Domaine Rougeot Père & Fils in Meursault also catch the eye.
“Wine is very important for us. It is in our genes and is an integral part of our Burgundy culture,” Ménager says. “I love wines that tell a story about the history of Burgundy terroir and the work of soils. Plus many of our wines come from growers who have become friends and who love what we do here. So there is coherence in our collaboration.”
As the Sunday meal draws to a close, sated guests linger under La Ferme de la Ruchotte’s spell. We are all happy savoring the pleasure of this memorable culinary moment.
“Being able to feed our guests with animals we saw born and that we cook as best we can is without doubt my best achievement,” Ménager says. “I love to live on farm with the people who work here and share great moments of happiness like the birth of animals. Slaughtering the animals is not easy, you know, but I live this as a sacrifice.”
“I like to make a kitchen that puts forward my products. As a cook, I am only a courier,” he adds.”The cook should fade in front of an animal that by his sacrifice will feed customers. Great products do not need much. The stars should be the product and the peasant.”
Rock on, Monsieur!
“Hey there, all you middle men,
Throw away your fancy clothes.
And while you’re out there sittin’ on a fence,
Get off your ass and come down here.
‘Cause rock ‘n’ roll ain’t no riddle man
To me it makes good, good sense.
Rock ‘N’ Roll Ain’t Noise Pollution by AC/DC
At Restaurant La Pyramide in the northern Rhône city of Vienne, Chief Sommelier Baptiste Cavagna cuts a striking figure in a neat black suit, vest and tie. He walks the elegant, modern dining room with a smooth, highly professional air while confidently serving wines and talking affably with guests. But “off stage” outside of Chef Patrick Henriroux’s gastronomic Michelin two-star stop, Cavagna often uses days off to taste directly and casually with dynamic winegrowers such as Matthieu Barret, the biodynamc producer extraordinaire in Cornas.
Cavagna’s gracious ease both in the dining room and in domaine cellars flows from his professionalism and passion to discover new wines. In 2016 his refined communication skills and dedication to métier impressed industry peers who voted Cavagna “Sommelier of the Year” in an evaluation organized by the French trade magazine, Le Chef. And while recognition as an outstanding sommelier in his generation is a great honor, Cavagna’s primary focus remains on creating memorable moments for guests.
“I always try to enhance every guest’s culinary pleasure by pairing each course with beautiful wine discoveries,” Cavagna says. “With a close link between the kitchen and the cellar, at La Pyramide we always work to offer guests not just a meal but an experience.”
On a recent Sunday evening dinner, our party of seven experienced Cavagna’s skills and savoir-faire firsthand. His fun, imaginative wine selections paired perfectly with the kitchen’s deliciously inventive “Menu Pyramide.”
To add a little fun to festivities, Cavagna served the wines “blind” from decanters. We had to rely on our senses and imaginations rather than preconceived notions in trying to identify each wine.
For the first course, Chef Patrick Henriroux’s team served a delectable Suprême de Pintade Fermière-–boneless, skinless breast meat of a farm-raised guinea fowl wrapped with smoked duck breast. It came with a mix of foie gras and seasonal rhubarb served over a sablé shortbread made from torrefied flour. To complement the dish’s juicy, slightly earthy flavors and creamy, sweet accents, Cavagna served an aromatic, dry white wine with just the slightest hint of dusty pink. The wine’s marvelous floral, peach and citrus aromas and rich flavors balanced with a touch of creaminess and mouthwatering minerality.
“A Grand Cru Pinot Gris from Alsace,” I suggested. Not close, actually.
Cavagna revealed the 2015 Domaine Belluard, “Le Feu” Vin de Savoie produced from Gringnet, an obscure grape variety native to the Savoie’s high altitude, Alpine vineyards. Winegrower Dominique Belluard calls it “Terroir de Mont-Blanc” since the vines grow near the famous mountain. “Le Feu” or “the fire” refers to the vineyard’s red clay soils rich in iron oxide.
Belluard’s biodynamic cultivation applies “dynamized” natural composts and teas in lieu of synthetic chemicals on the vines. Despite severe forty percent grades in some points in the vineyard, he performs all work manually. Harvest yields a modest 35 hl/h to concentrate fresh aromas and flavors. Fermentation occurs with indigenous yeasts in neutral concrete vats and results in only 12% A.B.V. Bottling occurs with minimal sulfites added. The meticulous work produces just the kind of fresh, hand-crafted bottle that Cavagna values: a terroir driven wine offering food-friendliness and sheer pleasure.
“I am a person who likes good wines, if this one can be done in an organic way I am for it. But I do not tolerate a wine with defaults especially doubtful aromas,’ he notes. “I always favor beautifully made wines.”
The “mountain” wines of the Jura and Savoie hold a special place with Cavagna who grew up nearby in the Ain département. His hometown, Nantua, has only 3,900 inhabitants and is best known for tannery and shoemaking. Ain’s only vineyards fall in the low profile Bugey appellation, home of the Altesse white grape and increasingly popular sparkling wines. All of which makes Cavagna’s rise to the heights of his profession even more impressive.
He began studying restaurant management in Ain. Then at the Lycée des Métiers Hôtelier de l’Hermitage, he pursued the sommelier métier in the town of Tain Hermitage, an epicenter of northern Rhône winegrowing. After graduation, Cavagna’s big break came working for the Loisseau family’s restaurants in Burgundy and Paris.
At the Relais Bernard Loisseau, a gastronomic Michelin-starred restaurant with a 15,000 bottle cellar, Cavagna learned from Chief Sommelier Eric Goettelmann, a winner of the Le Chef magazine’s :Sommelier of the Year” in 2006.
“Eric was very professional and knowledgeable,” Cavagna recalls. Baptiste Gauthier, another Loisseau colleague and now sommelier at Restaurant Anne-Sophie Pic in Valence, also served as a mentor.
“He was my direct supervisor, and he helped me grow and make progress,” Cavagna recalls.
After stints in the bright lights of Paris at Tante Marguerite and Le Meurice, Cavagna came to La Pyramide as Chief Sommelier in September, 2013. He oversees wine purchases for Chef Henriroux’s retail boutique, the hotel and three restaurants. At the restaurants, seventy five percent of the wines sold come from northern Rhône appellations such as Condrieu and Côte Rôtie. Cavagna and his team also sell significant amounts of white and red Burgundies.
As one of La Pyramide’s leaders, Cavagna also mentors assistant sommeliers and young interns. But his primary role remains providing guests with wine advice and service, always with an eye towards creating fun experiences. Speaking of which, at our group’s recent “Menu Pyramide” Sunday dinner, the second course offered a Fricassée d’escargots du Rozay—sautéed and braised Rozay snails served with crisp, tiny new potatoes and peas over a savory base of finely minced and caramelized meat from pig’s feet and ears. As they say, “Tout est bon dans le cochon!”
Cavagna’s next wine had a deep purple color with ripe dark fruit and tantalizing black peppers aromas. Concentrated, ripe fruit balanced with terrific freshness and prominent, yet smooth tannins. IIt was really delicious and a perfect paring with the dish.
I guessed a Saint-Joseph red from a good producer and good vineyard. “Close,” Cavagna replied.
It was the 2014 Yann Chave, Crozes-Hermitage “Le Rouvre” made from select vines on the Rhône River’s “left bank” in the plains across from Saint-Joseph. The Syrah vines average around 50 years old and toil in soils rich in large, round galet stones. To enliven the soils and vines, talented veteran grower Yann Chave farms organically as certified with the green Agriculture Biologique mark on the bottle’s back label. The wine showed just how delicious and well-balanced Croze-Hermitage can when a dedicated grower lavishes meticulous attention on the vines while working organically.
It was then on to third course which offered Selle d’Agneau Allaiton aux Herbes—a tender piece of lamb loin wrapped around fresh herbs and served with fennel bits, confit lemon pieces, and red beet juice. To complement the inventive dish, Cavagna served a red with glistening, dark ruby color offering intriguing aromas of ripe cherries and blackberries with subtle notes of earthy wild herbs and smokiness. Similar ripe flavors followed with a touch of spiciness balanced beautifully with fresh mineral notes and smooth tannins.
Placing the wine proved challenging. It resembled a well made Right Bank Bordeaux, yet had more exotic aromas and elegance. It lacked the overt ripeness of Grenache, yet it was richer than Pinot Noir. It certainly did not shout Syrah. This delicious wine turned out to be a revelation for me.
It was the 2014 Clos Saint-Vincent, “Cuvee Le Clos,” Vin de Bellet from winegrower G. Sergi and family. The wine uses Folle Noir (90%) and Grenache (10%) grapes from vines growing on the hills above the city of Nice along the Mediterranean Coast.
The vineyard benefits from both maritime breezes and winds blowing down from foothills of the Alpes. The vines are cultivated with biodynamie composts, teas, and plowing rather than synthetic chemicals. The domaine holds ECOCERT’s biodynamic certification and has been a member of Biodyvin since 2007. All the arduous, meticulous vineyard labor enables the vines to sink deep roots to take full advantage of Bellet’s complex soils of sands, clays, limestone and large, embedded galet stones.
Its another illustration of Cavagna’s strong preference for original, high quality vins de terroir providing both great pleasure and memorable moments of discovery. He consistently focuses on the wine and its pairing with food rather than drawing attention to himself. The results are simply dazzling.
Burgundy may be Pinot Noir’s spiritual home, but Alsace winegrowers’ palpable passion for Pinot Noir these days cannot be ignored. Leading winegrowers such as André Ostertag, Christian Beyer, Jean-Paul and Marie Zusslin, Maxime Barmès and Rémy Gresser embody the renewed dedication to producing high quality, delicious Pinot Noir wines worthy of international attention. Each grower offers an ambitious vision for Alsace red wines.
“Studying winegrowig in Burgundy gave me a high sense of grand vin. It is a place with a high sense of terroir,” says André Ostertag who returned home to manage Domaine Ostertag which his father, Adolph, created in 1966. “The temptation is to try to copy the style of red Burgundies, but this is a beginner’s temptation. After a while you learn that you have to discover your own wine by understanding the essence of what’s going on in your soils and terroir.”
He notes that Alsace has more diverse soils than Burgundy, and the climate has more sunshine and drier conditions. And on a cultural level, Alsace mixes both Germanic and Latin influences.
“Our best Pinot Noirs have an identity all their own, one with powerful fruit, freshness and ripe tannins,” he says. Achieving this optimal style requires savoir-faire.
“For a long time in Alsace we treated red winemaking similar to white winemaking, but producing serious red wines requires a different approach,” he notes.
He points to reduced yields as a key to enabling proper extraction of color from Pinot Noir grape skins. Providing the notoriously fickle grape with more sun and heat, he notes, also promotes riper tannins which create better balanced wines.
More importantly for Osterag, discovering the true identity and potential of Alsace Pinot Noirs pivoted on the conversion of vineyards to biodyanmie practices. He began in 1997 by abandoning synthetic chemical applications on the vines in favor of biodynamie’s teas and composts. Vineyard soils regained vitality, and he says the vines became more self-sufficient.
“The best grapes come from happy vines that are respected. Biodynamie is the most natural and best way to respect the vines,” he notes. “The vines become better adapted to react to difficult circumstances on their own instead of just depending on humans. The vines then produce better tasting and healthier grapes.”
Ostertag produces two Pinot Noirs. The first, Pinot Noir “E”, he calls vin de fruit or “fruit wine.” The 2014 Domaine Ostertag, Pinot Noir “E” (Imported to the U.S. by Kermit Lynch) comes from 20 year old vines growing in clay and gravel. The wine aged in stainless steel for nine months before bottling. The lovely ruby color offers piping aromas of raspberries and a touch of earthiness. Delicious, crunchy red fruit flavors balance with zesty acidity and marvelous, mouthwatering mineral notes. Elegant, soft tannins frame the fruity finish. A fun, well made red made for gulping pleasure.
Ostertag’s second Pinot Noir comes from forty year old vines in Fronholz vineyard, a very unique site atop a hill in Epfig.
“Fronholz is a very strong place in terms of personality,” he notes. “It faces southwest so the evening sun creates warm afternoons followed by cool mornings. The grapes ripen slowly and develop complex aromatics.”
“The soils are marnes—a type of heavy clay—and clay mixed with chalky limestone, soils perfectly suited for Pinot Noir,” Ostertag adds. “The vineyard gives a Pinot Noir reflecting both sky and earth, lightness and mineral power.”
The 2015 Domaine Ostertag, Fronholz Pinot Noir fermented in stainless steel and then aged in previously used French barrique barrels. It offers red cherry and spicy aromas followed by delicious, ripe sweet fruit, ample concentration, marvelous freshness and smooth tannins. An elegant, understated red giving terrific pleasure.
Looking to the future, Ostertag says his son Arthur, who also trained in Burgundy, has a strong desire to make more Pinot Noir. The warming climate create opportunities, in Ostertag’s view, especially as more growers plant Pinot Noir vines on Alsace’s prominent hillside sites.
“There are many positive conditions for more and better Pinot Noirs in Alsace,” Ostertag says. “But making Pinot Noir is more than a question of just style and what you you want to do. The question of who you are is just as important. Because you make the wine you are.”
“In Medieval times, Alsace made as much red as white wine, so we have a tradition with Pinot Noir for over 400 years,” says 14th generation winegrower Christian Beyer of Domaine Emile Beyer in Eguisheim. “We have everything Pinot Noir needs—a relatively cool climate, plenty of limestone soils, and more and more older vines.”
But Beyer says today’s Alsace reds differ from those of thirty years ago.
“My generation has many experiences outside Alsace in Burgundy, Bordeaux and elsewhere, and this makes a big difference,” says Beyer who, like André Ostertag, studied winegrowing in Burgundy. “Today more winegrowers have big ambitions to produce great Alsace red wines.”
In pursuing quality, Beyer reduced yields and worked organically without synthetic chemicals since returning to manage the domaine in 1997. In 2016 he went further by beginning conversion to biodynamie work in the vineyards. After harvesting by hand, fermentation occurs naturally in stainless steel tanks in a new cuverie.
Beyer produces three levels of Pinot Noir. His Domaine Emile Beyer “Tradition” Pinot Noir comes from both estate grown fruit and purchased grapes.The vines grow primarily in limestone soils to deliver a fruit forward red wine with medium body and well balanced acidity and tannins.
The Domaine Emile Beyer, “Eguisheim” Pinot Noir uses all estate grown fruit harvested from thirty year old vines growing on slopes south of the village. The soils are mainly marl and limestone. The wine has darker red fruit with a touch of earthiness and spice from partial aging in barrique barrels made from Allier and Vosges oak. Ample concentration of pure red fruit in the glass balances with fine freshness and smooth tannins.
Beyer has special fondness for the Sundel lieu-dit, a plot of Pinot Noir vines planted in the upper portion of the Pfersigberg Grand Cru. The soils feature Bajocian limestone mixed with with iron. “Sundel” means “little sun,” and the vines lie on a south facing slope with ideal sun exposure.
“It is wonderful place and always a pleasure to work there,” says Beyer who collaborates closely with his wife Valérie in managing the estate. “You always feel good in this place because it is sunny and yet has a cool climate.”
Beyer used Pommard “Clos des Epenots” 1er cru clones from Burgundy to plant the Pinot Noir vines which are now approaching 20 years old. Respect for the soils and vines is the key to quality, he says.
“It is a cliché, but there are no great wines without grapes,” he says. “I consider myself a viticulturalist first, and a winemaker second.”
The 2015 Domaine Emile Beyer, “Sundel” lieu-dit Pinot Noir has a dark garnet color with a burst of pure, red fruit aromas and earthy notes. Pure, ripe dark red flavors layer in rich concentration balanced by uplifting acidity and elegant, understated tannins. It gives terrific immediate pleasure, but the wine has the fruit and structure to age for 10 to 20 years.
Going forward, Beyer believes that proven, superior Alsace Pinot Noir climats should be considered for Grand Cru status, a designation that the INAO, France’s governing body for appellations, has declined to grant thus far.
“The new generation is open to planting Pinot Noir in the best sites in Alsace,” Beyer notes. “Allowing Grand Cru status for Alsace red wines will encourage the efforts.”
Jean-Paul and Marie Zusslin:
Siblings Jean-Paul and Marie Zusslin both returned in 2000 to their family wine estate, Domaine Valentin Zusslin in Orschwihr south of Colmar. Jean-Paul had studied winegrowing in Beaune, Burgundy, while Marie initially studied law before switching to viticulture school in Rouffach, Alsace.
“We grew up in a family winery and our father was a great fan of Pinot Noirs from all over the world,” Marie says. “So my brother and I always shared the same dream and goal—to make our own Alsatian style of Pinot Noir from our beautiful Bollenberg lieu-dit vineyard.”
The siblings started with great advantages. The Bollenberg vineyard had been planted with Pinot Noir for three generations, and conversion to biodynamie already took place in 1997 with approval by Biodyvin in 2000. Using biodynamic teas and MT compost instead of synthetic chemical fertilizers, herbicides, fungicides and pesticides is crucial to quality, according to Zusslin.
“The vineyard is a living organism. The cultivated soil is not just a support for the vine, but a living environment, the source of energy for the plant as well as its aerial environment,” Zusslin says.
They religiously apply dynamized biodynamic treatments such as the 500 preparation of “cow horn dung” and the preparation 501 “horn silica” along with other preparations made from yarrow, camomile and other natural materials. The process helps the vines stay in healthy balance and maintains vital soils. Better tasting, fresher grapes result from the magnificent Bollenberg terroir.
As part of a protected nature reserve, the “Landes Seches,” the vineyard actually lies within a dry moor. The Pinot Noir vines grow amid a tremendous diversity of flowers and plants populated by numerous birds, snails, and lizards—not to mention a feral cat or two. It is a windswept, peaceful place of moving beauty with wide open skies in all directions.
The soils include clay and limestone as well as iron minerals. The latter account for the vineyard’s reddish-brown soil color. Bollenberg’s sunny, warm, and dry climate makes leaf canopy management a priority, according to Zusslin.
“We want to avoid overcooked and compote berries,” she says
The Zusslin’s harvest by hand with yields at a very modest 35 hectoliters per hectare. Sorting unripe and damaged fruit occurs first in the vineyard and then again on an air-powered sorting table at the winery.
“It all makes a real difference in the final juice, purer and more delicate,” Zusslin says. All stems are also removed. Fermentation follows with indigenous yeasts in large foudres with extended maceration. Manual punch downs occur three times daily.
“Fermentation is kind of birth. We have to be precise in the process,” she adds.
Aging occurs in a French oak barrels with 1/3 being new each year and a 1/3 of the barrels coming from the nearby Vosges Mountains. Bottling occurs with minute additions of sulfites. In 2010 and 2012 bottling occurred without sulfites added.
All the meticulous attention to detail results in enthralling, delicious Pinot Noirs. The 2013 Domaine Valentin Zusslin, Pinot Noir Bollenberg offers pure red fruit aromas opening to blackberry and ripe red fruit flavors. Fine acidity and a touch of oak carry the fruity, clean, crisp finish. The 2011 Domaine Valentin Zusslin, Pinot Noir Bollenberg “Harmonie” comes from older vines. Pure red fruit and brown spice aromas lead to concentrated red fruit flavors of tremendous purity and freshness. Elegant, firm tannins add balance to the fruity, smooth finish. Delicious! The 2009 Domaine Valentin Zusslin, Pinot Noir Bollenberg “Harmonie” delivers pure, ripe red fruit aromas with fine complexity and a touch of pleasant earthiness. Ripe, and round fruit balances with terrific freshness and fine, polished tannins. Outstanding!
“When sommeliers blind taste our Bollenberg Pinot Noirs, they typically try to guess the Burgundy location for the wine. When they discover the wine is from Alsace they are astonished,” Zusslin says. “We are proud and a bit amused. It will take a lot more work to convince more people that great Pinot Noir is possible in Alsace. But some good vignerons opened the way years ago in Alsace, and the new generations will continue with the same passion for Pinot Noir.”
At the tender age of thirteen, Maxime Barmès began working in the vineyards with his late father, François, during school holidays and weekends. Maxime and his sister Sophine also tasted plenty of wine with their parents at family meals and restaurants.
Like more and more young growers in Alsace, Maxime eventually journeyed to Burgundy to pursue his formal winegrowing studies. There he learned the latest theories on vine planting and the microbiology and chemistry of vinification. He also pursued an internship with Didier Montchovet, a winegrower in Nantoux near Pommard and an early pioneer of the biodynamie philosophy applied to Pinot Noir in Burgundy.
“I observed the Burgundy method with Pinot Noir,” he recalls. He also came to an important realization.
“Honestly my father already understood how to make great Pinot Noirs, and he always believed in Pinot Noir in Alsace. Aside from decreasing the quantity of new casks used for aging, I have not really changed the methods I learned from my father,” says Maxime who manages the domaine with his mother, Geneviève, and sister, Sophie. “But in the future, we are always open to other ways of doing things. The important thing is what is in the glass at the end.”
When Maxime’s parents founded Domaine Barmès-Buecherin 1985, they brought together vineyards from their respective families to create a 15 hectare estate. They rapidly moved towards an organic approach in the vineyards and eventually converted to biodyanmie in 1998. Approval from Biodyvin occurred in 2002. Maxime remains a strong believer in biodyanmie as a critical factor in producing quality wines with marked personalities.
“The biodynamie philosophy of cultivation brings harmony and balance to the vine and increases its intrinsic qualities. It strengthens the vine’s natural defenses and gives dynamism to the life and composition of the soils in which the vine is anchored.” he notes. “It also encourages maturation of the grapes’ sugars, acids and phenolics in a healthy and balanced way.”
Phenolic ripening of the skins is especially important for Pinot Noir, according to Maxime, who looks for a “natural expression of the grape in its soil.”
“A good phenolic maturation is important for Pinot Noir because the grapes macerate with the skins,” he notes. “It is very important that anthocyanins and tannins are ripe for Pinot Noir. The resulting wine will naturally require fewer exogenous inputs.”
Maxime produces two Pinot Noirs. The Pinot Noir Réserve comes from an assemblage of different plots of Pinot Noir of different ages and sun exposures. The oldest and youngest vines come from sélection massale grafts from Pinot Noir vines with Burgundy origins. The soils consist of either clay and limestone or marl and limestone soil.
The 2014 Domaine Barmès-Buecher, Pinot Noir Réserve offers a ruby color with bewitching red cherry, raspberry and earthy aromas. Fresh, pure red fruit flavors of medium concentration balance with zesty acidity and mouthwatering minerality. Elegant, understated tannins balance the fruity, exuberant finish. A charming, delicious wine all the way around. The 2015 Domaine Barmès-Buecher, Pinot Noir Réserve unfolds dark red fruit with a touch of spicy oak. The rich, juicy red fruit flavors have great purity and fuller concentration while balancing beautifully with clean acidity. An outstanding, delicious wine.
The second wine, the Pinot Noir Vieilles Vignes, comes from 55-year old vines planted in Grand Cru Hengst. The clonal grafts came from Domaine d’Angerville in Volnay, a gift from the Marquis d’Angerville to Maxime’s maternal grandfather. The vines toil with a warm southeastern exposure and marl and limestone soils.
“The micro-climate is very sunny and rather dry, which reinforces the potential maturity of Pinot Noir grapes from this terroir,” Maxime notes.
Forty percent of the wine for the 2013 Domaine Barmès-Buecher, Pinot Noir “Vieilles Vignes” aged in new French barrique barrels. The wine opens with a ruby color and lovely pure red fruit aromas and a touch of spice. The purity carries through in the delicious red fruit flavors balanced with superb freshness and elegant tannins. This is a vin de garder, a wine that will mellow and improve with 5 to 10 years of cellar aging. Impressive and delicious.
For the future, Maxime is bullish on Alsace Pinot Noirs and sees new confidence in the region.
“Alsace growers have realized that we have the terroirs to produce great Pinot Noirs, he says. “The future is very promising.”
Vigneron Rémy Gresser is best known for scintillating Rieslings from the Grand Crus Kastelberg, Wiebelsberg and Moenchberg in Andlau in the Alsace’s Bas-Rhine region. But he also takes special care with his Pinot Noirs. The domainefollows a biodynamic philosophy which, according to Gresser, best embodies preceding generations’ respect for the soils and love of authentic winemaking. For Gresser, Alsace’s cultural history always holds important keys to successful winegrowing.
The 2013 Domaine Rémy Gresser, Pinot Noir “Clos de l’Ourse” takes its name from the “clos of the bear” which symbolizes Andlau’s two thousand year winegrowing history dating to “pagan” times. The Pinot Noir grapes grow on slate and limestone soils. The wine ferments naturally and slowly before aging in used barrique barrels of varying ages. The deep ruby color offers delightful, pure red fruit and notes of smokiness and brown spices. Fresh, ripe red fruit with pleasant earthiness and medium concentration balances with precise acidity and fine tannins. Delicious, well made wine.
Other Alsace Pinot Noir Producers Of Note:
2014 François Baur, Alsace Pinot Noir “Schlittweg” lieu-dit: The wine comes from grapes grown biodynamically (as approved by Biodyvin) in stony, sandy soils near Turckheim. It aged in stainless steel for freshness. The dark ruby color offers black cherry and violet aromas leading to ripe, round dark cherry flavors with plenty of zesty acidity. Fresh minerality and smooth tannins balance the wine’s medium concentration. Terrific example of the pleasures of well made Alsace Pinot Noir.
2013 Kuentz-Bas, Pinot Noir “Trois Châteaux”: Winemaker Samuel Tottoli used grapes grown biodynamically (certified by Demeter) with a yield of 35hl/h for a rich, fleshy red. Aromas of black cherries, kirsch compote, and smoky notes open in the glass. Juicy black cherry flavors with a touch of earthiness balance with smoky oak notes and rich concentration. Bright acidity and elegant tannins provide good balance.
2014 Domaine Zind-Humbrecht, Pinot Noir “Heimbourg”: Winegrower Olivier Humbrecht’s high profile support for biodynamie cultivation as a Biodyvin member and his well deserved reputation as one of Alsace’s top white wine producers overshadows his considerable talents as a red wine producer. The Pinot Noir grapes for this delicious wine come from the west facing slopes of Heimbourg vineyard, a plot just across the road from Brand Grand Cru. The 22-year old vines toil in marl and limestone soils and render a red wine with aromatic complexity, pure ripe red fruit flavors and rich concentration. Fresh acidity and minerality provide the wine with marvelous lift balanced by firm, yet smooth, well structured tannins. Fermentation occurs with 1/3 whole clusters. Aging occurs in used barrique barrels, A lovely, impressive wine that will soften with five years or so of cellar aging.
Domaine Marcel Deiss, Pinot Noir “Burlenberg” lieu-dit: In their Burlenberg vineyard in Bergheim, winegrowers Jean-Michel Deiss and son Mathieu use a co-plantation of Pinot Noir and Pinot Beurot (a.k.a., Pinot Gris) vines growing in complex, hard limestone soils. They follow an a biodynamic approach, but don’t look for messages about certification from Jean-Michel. He rejects facile labels and easy answers in favor of a more philosophical bent. That said, his Burlenberg Pinot Noirs are known for their originality—a blend of complex blackberry, currant and spice traits with full concentration, firm acidity, marvelous minerality and rich tannins.
Domaine Albert Mann, Pinot Noir “Grand H”: Winegrower Jacky Barthelmé trained in Burgundy and holds a special passion for Alsace reds. The domaine pursues biodynamie cultivation (as approved by Biodyvin), and the grapes for this wine come from primarily heavy clay and limestone soils in the Grand Cru Hengst vineyard. A wine of complex aromatics with raspberry and blackcurrant flavors, full concentration, rich acidity and firm tannins.
Christian Binner, Pinot Noir “Hinterberg”: The wine comes from a small parcel of Burgundy clone vines under biodynamic cultivation within the famed Schlossberg Grand Cru’s granite soils. Yields are a modest 35 hl/h and harvested manually. Fermentation occurs with whole clusters with indigenous yeasts in large foudres. Aging takes place in foudre for eleven months before bottling without added sulfites.
Fritz-Schmidt, Pinot Noir, Rouge d’Ottrott Réserve de l’Ami Fritz: The wines is made from grapes grown with a “sustainable” philosophy under Terra Vits certification in the village of Ottrott, one of Alsace’s best known Pinot Noir terroirs dating to the Middle Ages. Soils are sands, clay and alluvial muds. Aged in both foudres and barriques.
Each Tuesday our little tasting group in Pittsburgh dreams of our favorite wine region, Burgundy, by sharing wines over a modest lunch at a local bistro. This week’s theme happened to be Pommard, and as usual we tasted the wines “blind” without foreknowledge of the producer, specific climat and vintage. The experience is always instructive and fun, and occasionally delightful with startling surprises. This week was no exception.
The first wine offered a promising start. Its ruddy color showed cellar aging and smelled of ripe red fruits with meaty, earthy notes. In the mouth, pure, ripe dark red fruit with good concentration and fine freshness suggested a good older vintage. A touch of firm tannins remained on the finish, but the wine’s overall balance led to guesses of a premier cru from 1998, 1999 or 2002.
Indeed it was the 1999 Domaine Jean-Marc Bouley, Pommard “Les Rugiens” 1er cru, and what a wonder delight it was to drink. Many of our little group of 7 or 8 Burgundy fans have purchased wines from Jean-Marc Bouley since the early 1990’s. In the past the wines’ firm tannins resolved reluctantly, but this lovely wine from the great 1999 vintage was completely on point. (Now with the son, Thomas Bouley working with meticulous care in the vineyards, this domaine is on the rise, so do not hesitate to buy.) The first wine, as it turned out, was only a prologue to the next miraculous wine.
The second wine showed a dark, youthful ruby color in the glass. Fresh, ripe red fruit and pleasant earthy notes wafted from the glass. The wine’s pure red fruits had marvelous concentration brought into perfect focus and balance with startlingly fresh acidity and minerality wrapped in elegant tannins. Tasters’ guesses ranged across 2013 to 2005 to 2002 for vintage and most assuredly a premier cru.
Wrong and wrong! The 1990 Domaine Leroy, Pommard :”Les Vignots” was 27 years “young” and from a well placed village lieu-dit. It left our experienced group of Burgundy tasters shaking our heads. The vibrant color, the pure fruit, the unbridled freshness, and the wine’s sheer vitality in the glass delivered pleasure second to none.
As for the reasons, certainly the bottle was purchased directly at the time of release and cellar aged properly for decades. The “Vignots” climat is a fine terroir, rich in clay and limestone on a slope with good drainage But in the end, one concludes that only a vigneron with the passion and savoir-faire of Lalou Bize-Leroy could make such the wine.
Her legendary vineyard practices rely on a biodynamic approach and incorporate meticulously detailed work by hand on each vine. Chemical fertilizers, herbicides, insecticides, and pesticides never touch either the soils or the vines. Only natural teas and herbal mixtures are applied to tap into the vines’ natural energies and capacities to resist diseases on their own.
Early in the season–often during raw weather in April–time consuming ébourgeonnage by hand removes buds selectively from each vine to maintain low yields. As the season progresses the tips of the vines are neither clipped nor trimmed to maximize energy within the vines. Additional removal of buds occurs after flowering.
Selection of only ripe fruit occurs during hand harvesting followed by a meticulous second selection in the cuverie to ensure only the best fruit goes into wooden vats. Fermentation occurs with native yeasts and whole bunches of grapes, stems and all. Gentle punch downs and remontage occur during slow fermentation. After pressing, the new wines go by gravity for aging first into one cellar and then into an even deeper, colder cellar until final bottling.
But all this description of process matters little to the ultimate dazzling reality of the wine in the glass, in this case after twenty seven years in bottle. It was yet another blind tasting demonstrating that Lalou Bize-Leroy can produce spectacular wines of unrivaled pleasure and refinement. So pity the wines that followed.
Yet both wines held their own. The 2010 Domaine de Courcel, Pommard “Grand Clos des Épenots” 1er cru offered pretty red fruit aromas a hint of smokiness leading to fresh, correct red fruit flavors with modest concentration.Plenty of fresh acidity and firm tannins will allow the wine to age gracefully for another 5 to 10 uears.
The 1998 Domaine de Courcel, Pommard “Grand Clos des Épenots” 1er cru had a dusky ruby color with some brown at the rim. Ripe dark plum and red fruit aromas and plenty of earthy notes led to ripe, round red fruit and meaty flavors. Fine acidity and resolved tannins added good balance and structure.
For American-born Juan Sanchez, his Paris wine shop began with La Dernière Goutte, a French name meaning “the last drop.” But rather ironically for twenty years at this cozy establishment at 6 rue Bourbon-le-château in the Left Bank neighborhood of St-Germain-des-Prés, French wines and classes have flowed continuously. Over the years Sanchez added a trio of popular dining spots nearby, and most recently he opened Freddy’s, a comfortable wine bar. At each stop, quality, convenience and fun prevail. To see for yourself, start by stopping in at La Dernière Goutte for a Saturday afternoon free wine tasting with an outstanding French winegrower on hand to answer questions and talk terroir.
Recently on the last Saturday in April, Sanchez’s engaging and knowledgeable colleague, Patty Lurie, poured samples and handled sales. Talented northern Rhône winegrower Guillaume Clusel chatted with customers. The tasting becomes hectic at times, but Lurie keeps the pace moving with a judiciously enforced semblance of order. Nobody seems to mind anyway because Clusel’s wines are so darn tasty and inspiring.
Which is one of Sanchez’s keys to success. He offers only estate grown wines–in French, vins de propriétaire–from relatively small production, artisan domaines. Each winegrower takes a personal interest in his or her vines. They work with mud on their hands and boots directly in the vineyards typically without chemicals in organic–and sometimes also biodynamic–fashion. As Clusel’s wines vividly illustrate, the resulting wines reflect distinct terroir while singing with lively fruit, personality and pure pleasure.
His wines come from the Côteaux du Lyonnais, a reclaimed terroir west of Lyon, as well as Côte-Rôtie and Condrieu with the family domane, Clusel-Roch. He helped spearhead the domaine’s conversion to biologique organic winegrowing without chemical herbicides, fertilizers, fungicides and pesticides. Grasses and flowers grow between rows in winter to promote robust life in the soils, a factor forcing vines to compete and become sturdy. Spring plowing helps reawaken vines and requires tremendous labor in the steep and rocky vineyards.
Yields come in at low levels to further enhance quality. After manual harvest and partial destemming, the grapes ferment as naturally as possible.
The Côteaux du Lyonnais, “Galet” red wine offers a real show stopper. It shows that wines made from Gamay can have real guts and breeding to deliver a terrific glassful of pleasure. Aromas of cherries and blackberries waft up with hints of newly plowed earth and smokiness. Pure red fruits and mouthwatering minerality open in the glass balanced by firm, but entirely elegant tannins. All in all, it is startlingly delicious, well made and reasonably priced.
The other Clusel wines were terrific, too. Which raises a dilemma for travelers from outside Europe. You love the wines and would like to buy a case, but how can you take them home without spending a small fortune on either shipping or a fancy travel case for checked baggage?
Sanchez offers the perfect solution as Patty Lurie demonstrates. She first individually wraps the bottles in reinforced, rigid cardboard holders. Then the holders go into a sturdy, rigid cardboard box. Packing tape closes the box and then comes the touch of magic.
Lurie firmly wraps heavy twine around the box from stem to stern. Then, in a stroke that would make Rube Goldberg smile ear to ear, creates a sturdy twine handle for easy toting. You then check in the box at the airport as luggage.
“It works and we’ve never had a customer have a problem taking home wine with our carrier'” she notes. Which is great, because in addition to Clusel, La Dernière Goutte offers hundreds of wines including those from terrific Burgundy producers such as Domaine Bruno Clair, Domaine Geantet-Pansiot, Domaine Denis Mortet, and Domaine Simon Bize.
After purchasing your wine, you’re ready for a casual bite to eat, a good glass of wine and a comfy ambiance. Sanchez has you covered there, too.
Just around the corner from La Dernière Goutte on rue de Seine, he operates the excellent restaurants Semilla and Fish. But his new little gem, Freddy’s at 54 rue de Seine, 75006 Paris, is a sure bet. The super friendly staff has passion for and knowledge of fun, terroir-driven wines. Recently the Domaine des Huards Cour Cheverny Rouge, a red blend of Pinot Noir, Gamay and Cabernet Franc from an organic Loire grower, served as wine of the day. The Domaine de la Pépière, Muscadet “Clissons” made from from grapes grown organically in granite soils in the western Loire Valley also catches the eye.
The fun menu includes seasonal, tapas style vegetable plates such tempura asparagus spears. Creatively prepared main courses are also available.
So put it all together—La Dernière Goutte’s great selection of reasonably priced quality wines, the convenience of being able to take your wines home on the plane, and fun wine and food just around the corner—and the ingenious Mr. Sanchez and his teams are on a roll. And you won’t want to miss enjoying the experience.
On the otherwise brilliantly clear morning of April 21, 2017, a smoky gray haze hung over the famous Chablis Grand Cru vineyards of Burgundy. The night before, temperatures dropped below freezing just like the two previous nights. Exhausted, but plucky vignerons had again valiantly manned bougie smudge pots burning through the cold night air attempting to hold devastating frosts at bay from the vines.
The moment was particularly pivotal since warm temperatures in early April accelerated the growing season with early bud breaks on the vines. Just one night of frost, let alone three consecutively, can cruelly destroy vulnerable buds and carry away prospects for an abundant vintage. Coming on the heels of the 2016 vintage where frost and hail wiped out 80% or more of many producers’ production, the early 2017 conditions have been particularly dispiriting.
Yet after sleepless nights and long days, vignerons like Samuel Billaud in Chablis and David Renaud in Irancy, a nearby appellation also vulnerable to frost, meet with foreign visitors and local customers. Why? The answer lies with passion for the terroir and resilient, independent personalities proudly committed to the winegrowing métier as a way of life.
In the center of the town of Chablis, an unshaven and mildly gaunt Samuel Billaud patiently provides a tour of his cuverie and cellar which he acquired in 2015. After harvest, sorting occurs before the operation’s Bucher bladder press applies gentle, steady pressure to newly harvested Chardonnay grapes. Gravity then takes the juice to débourbage decanting tanks and then into stainless steel fermentation tanks where natural indigenous yeasts do their work. Élevage occurs in a mix of new but mainly older demi-muid casks.
Previously Billaud made wine for his family’s venerable Domaine Billaud-Simon estate. But after philosophical differences with his uncle over keeping the domaine on an independent course, in 2009 Samuel created his own label. In 2015 he came full circle by purchasing 4 hectares (about 12 acres) of well placed Grand Cru, Premier Cru and village Chablis vineyards previously belonging to Domaine Billaud-Simon. Samuel also purchases additional Grand Cru fruit from other well regarded growers.
A tasting at the domaine of a wide selection of wines from 2015 (see notes below) shows a true master taking full advantage of the vineyards’ distinctive chalky Kimmeridgean marl soils. Billaud’s exhilarating white wines balance a complex mix of ripe fruit and smoky aromas, pure fruit flavors, striking freshness and minerality, and long, seductive finishes. Not surprising, since Billaud values proper balance in all his decisions.
“We practice lutte raisonée but we are effectively biologique organic,” he says. “But in a catastrophic year like 2016 some treatments were required to have any crop at all.”
Conversely the more agreeable 2015 vintage required practically no intervention while delivering outstanding fruit leading to terrific wines. Over time Billaud remains committed to achieving financially viability while maintaining the vital, lively soils necessary for healthy vines and vibrant, scintillating wines.
Deploying the bougie smudge pots to combat frost and maintain crop size provides a similar balancing act, according to Billaud.
“It is expensive and time consuming to light the bougies so we can afford only to protect about ten percent of the vines,” he notes. “We protect the Grand Crus and Premier Crus.”
Just southwest of Chablis in Irancy, David Renaud faces similar decisions. He tends Pinot Noir and César old vines in a little amphitheater valley rich in Kimmeridgean marl and brown limestone. Picturesque ranks of vines and bushy cherry trees cover the slopes of the hollow leading down to the village. The unusual situation captures warmth and sunshine to help ripen the grapes and at the same time tempers the effects of harsh winds and cold Spring temperatures that occur frequently. Renaud’s fifteen hectares include well placed sites in premier crus Paradis, Les Mazelots, Vaupessiot and Palotte. His grandfather planted the Mazelot vines in 1935.
As a fifth generation winegrower, Renaud works with a special appreciation for both history and his current challenges and opportunities.
“The monks of the Abbey Saint-Germain-d’Auxerre began working this terroir in the 9th century and recognized its unique qualities,” Renaud says while walking the vines above the village. “In fact, the name of the nearby town of Vincelottes on the Yonne River means wine cellars in Latin.”
During his youth, Renaud worked with his grandfather and father in the vineyards before studying oenology. After returning home full-time, he began a gradual conversion to biologique organic cultivation with the goal of optimizing quality and taking full advantage of Irancy’s unique terroir. It was an ambitious, labor intensive change entailing significant risk considering Irancy’s cold, often damp environment.
But the move improved the quality of the wines and burnished the Renaud family’s winemaking reputation both in France and internationally. The domaine eventually obtained organic certification after David took full responsibility for the domaine in 2005.
No chemical fertilizers, herbicides or fungicides touch the vines which are trained simple Guyot style. He limits yields to around 45hl/h. Renaud’s rocky vineyards teem with vitality and life in stark contrast to nearby lifeless, dried out vineyards.
In the cellar Renaud proudly displays photos of his great grandmother and other family members involved in harvest and winemaking. He credits the family with instilling the passion and discipline needed to persevere along the path to quality despite difficult vintages. Renaud and the domaine’s small team continue to live out the winegrowing métier with meticulous vineyard work throughout the year. The delicious wines in the glass testify to the success of their hard work. Tasting Notes: Domaine Samuel Billaud:
2015 Domaine Samuel Billaud, Chablis: Made from two parcels of vines on the Serein River’s left bank and one on the right. Fermentation in stainless steel tanks. Plenty of ripe fruit in the note with smoky hints. Medium bodied, ripe fruit–grapefruit, orange. Fresh acidity, refreshing mineral notes, clean dry finish. Correct, well balanced, delicious Chablis.Highly Recommended. 2015 Domaine Samuel Billaud, Chablis “Montée de Tonnerre” 1er cru:Made from two sites within the well placed vineyard near the Grand Crus. Fermented 80% in stainless steel and 20% barrels. Green apple and smoky notes on the nose. Concentrated fruit with notes of salinity and firm acidity. Delicious, refreshing minerality framed an elegant, pure fruit finish. Very classy.
2015 Domaine Samuel Billaud, Chablis “Séchet” 1er cru: Made from well located vines averaging over 70 years old. Complex aromas of ripe fruit and flint. Pure. transparent fruit with full ripeness balanced with terrific energy and freshness. Aged on fine lees for a touch creaminess. Long, pure finish. Delicious, complex, refined.
2015 Domaine Samuel Billaud, Chablis Grand Cru “Bougros”: Made from high quality fruit purchased from an old friend and respected winegrowing colleague, this outstanding wine has spicy, saline aromas. Ripe fruit with pronounced minerality. A vibrant, delicious wine with great class and refinement.
2015 Domaine Samuel Billaud, Chablis Grand Cru “Vaudésir”: Fermented and aged in older, neutral barrels. A marvelous Grand Cru where tension between ripe fruit and uplifting freshness hold in perfect balance. The aromas and flavors reveal ripe citrus, white peach and brown spices. This beautiful wine’s depth, vibrant freshness and mineral structure will enable graceful aging and improvement in the bottle to 10 to 20 years.
Domaine David Renaud: 2015 Domaine David Renaud, Irancy: This “classique” cuvée comes from vines in a variety of microclimates. Harvest yields of the Pinot Noir stay around 45hl/h before destemming and fermentation in stainless steel tanks with indigenous yeasts. Aging in stainless steel as well. Bright, fruity cherry and earthy notes on the nose. Juicy, fresh cherry flavors with moderate depth and fine tannins. An all together engaging and frank that over delivers for the price. Highly Recommended. 2014 Domaine David Renaud, Irancy “Les Mazelots”: Manually harvested Pinot Grapes from a specific lieu dit with very old vines. Aging in 600 liter demi-muids for 16 months before light filtering and bottling. Spicy, black cherry aromas. Rich, dark cherry fruit with superb freshness and distinct minerality. Fine tannins frame a long, fruity and delicious finish. 2015 Domaine David Renaud, Irancy “Vaupessiot”: From 60 year old vines. Maninly PInot Noir with just a touch of César. Aging in 228-liter barrel and larger demi-muids. Fresh dark red fruit. Medium body. Pronounced freshness and firm tannins. Will requires a few years of bottle aging to knit completely. Very fine. 2012 Domaine David Renaud, Irancy “Palotte”: Made from a fifty-fifty blend of Pinot Noir and César, a grape grown only in Irancy. Fermented with indigenous yeasts. Released after longer aging in wood and bottle aging. Dark red fruits on the nose with smoky notes. Rich, full bodied pure dark red fruit flavors. Fresh minerality balances firm tannins. 2012 Domaine David Renaud, Grume de César, Coteaux Bourguignonne: Made from 100% old-vine César. Released after extended élevage in barrel and in bottle. Red and balck fruit aromas on the nose, Fresh, fruity flavors. Full bodied and fresh. Firm tannins. Needs additional bottle aging to become fully balanced and delicious. N.V. David Renaud,Crémant de Bourgogne: Made by the local cooperative with Renaud’s Pinot Noir grapes. A blanc de noirs produced with Méthode Champenois and secondary fermentation in bottle for 16 months. Lovely frothy bubbles, fresh fruity aromas with light yeast notes, Delicious, frothy flavors and a clean, dry finish. Outstanding. (Opening Photo credit of smoky haze over Chablis Grand Cru Les Clos: (c) 2017 rodthompson photography)
In the early 2000’s, winegrower Pascal Lachaux of Domaine Robert Arnoux in Burgundy readily called on his teen-age son, Charles, to translate business conversations with English-speaking importers and journalists. The poised and engaging young man communicated confidently. His intelligence and the obvious bond of trust, mutual respect and collaboration between father and son made telling impressions.
Later after studying oenology in Beaune, Charles Lachaux left his village of Vosne-Romanée to work with wineries in the United States, New Zealand, South Africa and Bordeaux. The experiences proved essential to his formation as a winemaker, but unlike Stephen Dedalus, James Joyce’s fictional anti-hero in “A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man,” Lachaux returned home energized to pursue his freely chosen métier.
“Going away was part of the best times. You learn to hear, to open your mind and to discover there are other things happening in very different ways elsewhere,” Charles recalls. “It was a very rich experience that gave clearer ideas and understanding of what we want to do in Vosne-Romanée.”
Today thanks to Charles’ willingness to take risks backed up by hard work, the domaine’s wines are better than ever in terms of elegance, purity and sheer pleasure given. Tasting the 2015 wines from barrel at what is now called Domaine Arnoux-Lachaux was marvelous. But Charles is quick to attribute success to a family team effort with his father, Pascal, and mother, Florence.
“We are free as a family to take care of all aspects of the domaine,” he notes. “From the start after my return in 2011 my father gave me a lot of responsibility for technical winemaking. Gradually I have taken more responsibility for decisions and ideas in the vineyards as well. But my father still works with a close eye on what we are doing.”
“My parents have more time for themselves, and I have time to be involved with work,” he adds. “It is a clever way to involve and interest us all, because what we are creating and crafting here should give emotion. We always have to try to make wine with our guts.”
To this end, the still relatively young Charles Lachaux works with focused passion and a keen sense of the past, present and future.
“Working over nine hundred years the monks from the L’Abbaye Saint-Vivant in Vergy categorized the vineyards. They did hard work that we cannot do better today even with our modern tools,” Charles observes. “All our savoir-faire and techniques really start with them.”
Lachaux also acknowledges his late grandfather, Robert Arnoux, as playing a key role in setting the stage for the domaine’s current success.
“Before my grandfather’s generation, we were all farmers with some vineyards, animals, and fruit trees. We ate and drank what we produced because the wines were not so popular outside Burgundy,” he says.
His grandfather had his own vineyards and also worked for the owner of part of the famed Romanée Saint-Vivant Grand Cru. When the opportunity arose to purchase the vines, Arnoux did not hesitate. The Romanée Saint-Vivant wine remains the domaine’s crown jewel.
Today building on his own parents’ success in improving the vineyards and growing international demand for the domaine’s wines, Charles Lachaux also draws strength and camaraderie from a circle of slightly older colleagues who also learned from stages outside Burgundy. The likes of accomplished vignerons Thomas Bouley in Volnay, Nicolas Rossignol in Volnay and Beaune and Olivier Lamy in Saint Aubin share Lachaux’s open minded approach. They epitomize the best of the current generation of winegrowers working hard to maintain the Burgundy’s traditions while making their way successfully in an ever more competitive and fast paced context.
“We discuss what’s happening in the vineyards and cellars,” he notes. “We don’t have secrets which is really helpful in trying to go further in the quality of work. We share what can be done to get results, and it is the best way to go forward without losing time.”
Lachaux, like most accomplished growers, still believes 90% of quality comes from attentive, focused work in the vines.
“For me, it’s the interesting part, and it’s often difficult with unpredictable weather,” he says. “But if you aren’t passionate about the work and love doing it, you won’t produce a great product and great wines.”
Maintaining vibrant microbial life in the soils is a top priority. Which, of course, means foregoing chemical fertilizers, herbicides and fungicides while exploring alternative means to strengthen the vines.
“Vines are like human beings. If they exist in a healthy environment with good nutrients they will produce better results,” he notes. “It’s in our interest to bring back healthy soils so the vines can produce tremendous fruit and wines.”
For Charles, it is also about “respecting the life of the vine.” So for him the best chance for healthy vineyards producing quality fruit also involves intensive, thoughtful manual labor on the vines themselves. He favors meticulous, time consuming Guyot-Poussard pruning and training vines at high levels.
“By pruning late and tall, we try to push what the vineyard can do itself in producing quality fruit and resisting odium and mildew,” he notes. “The approach allows more leaves for photosynthesis, and then the vines are more focused on the grapes and root system for greater results.”
In the cellar, Charles spearheads another big change by favoring fermentation with significant percentages of whole Pinot Noir bunches, stems and all. It can render wines with bright, pure, transparent fruit and finesse instead of heavy concentration and high alcohol.
“For me it creates more seductive wines that suit my taste. It’s the style I prefer,” he says. Yet the approach carries risks especially in unripe vintages.
“With whole bunches you have to be careful to avoid greenness and harsh tannins in the wines. You must be more intuitive in the winemaking,” Charles notes. “But it creates the opportunity for more emotional wines. That’s why I like it as well.”
Continuing with an approach of taking risks calculated for quality, Charles allows fermentation with indigenous yeasts only. He also uses new oak barrels more judiciously during élevage, again in an effort to highlight transparent fruit and each climat’s distinct personality in the context of each distinct vintage.
Looking forward, Charles says his family has no immediate plans to expand its 14.5 hectares of vines.
“The aim will be to keep what we have which will be a difficult task already,” he wryly notes. “Trophy hunting” buyers of Burgundy vineyards continue to drive land prices to inconceivable heights. The spiral inflates inheritance transfer taxes and complicates carrying forward family domaines in tact. One senses, though, that this family of clever and creative winegrowers will adapt and find their way forward together especially with Charles as one of the most dedicated growers of his generation.
Meanwhile Charles Lachaux’s intense focus on producing quality shines brightly in the 2015 wines. Lachaux calls it a powerful, hot vintage but with fine acidity and relatively short production. Notes are presented in order with presentation of the wines at the domaine:
2015 Domaine Arnoux-Lachaux, Nuits-Saint-Georges: Fermentation with 70% whole clusters and 70% in stainless steel tank. The wine’s dark red color offers aromas of framboise and spiciness. Juicy, dark red fruit flavors; moderate concentration and well balanced acidity; fine tannins. Drink over 5 to 8 years. 2015 Domaine Arnoux-Lachaux, Vosne-Romanée: Fermentation with 70% whole clusters and aging in 15% new oak. Ripe red fruit and spice aromas. Juicy, fresh red fruit flavors and moderate concentration. Well balanced vibrant acidity and fine tannins. Drink over 8 to 10 years.
2015 Domaine Arnoux-Lachaux, Nuits-Saint-Georges “Les Poissets”: Made from 60 year old vines in marl and limestone. Fermentation with 100% whole clusters and punch down by foot. Fresh raspberry and spice aromas. Fresh red fruit flavors, moderate concentration. Firmer tannins but a fine, long finish. Drink over 8 to 10 years.
2015 Domaine Arnoux-Lachaux,Vosne-Romanée “Les Hautes Maizières”: Made from 40 year old vines just below Suchots 1er cu. 80% whole cluster fermentation. Ripe red fruit aromas, sweet, pure red fruit flavors, moderate concentration and plenty of fresh acidity. Fine, firm tannins. Drink over 8 to 12 years. 2015 Domaine Arnoux-Lachaux,Nuits-Saint-Georges “Les Procès” 1er Cru: Made from 40 year old vines in the line of premier cru, limestone rich vineyards on the slope just south of the village. Partial whole cluster fermentation. Aging in one year old and a small portion of new oak. Dark red fruit and spice aromas. Ripe, velvety fruit. Fine tannins. Long finish. Drink over 8 to 12 years. 2015 Domaine Arnoux-Lachaux,Nuits-Saint-Georges “Clos Des Corvées Pagets” 1er Cru: Made from 45 year of vines in a walled clos with linestone and sandy soils near Premeaux. Big, ripe red fruit flavors; ample concentration and richness balanced with freshness and fine tannins. Very classy. Drink over 10 to 15 years.
2015 Domaine Arnoux-Lachaux,Vosne-Romanée “Les Chaumes” 1er Cru: Made from 40 year old vines at the top of the vineyard in limestone and clay soils just below La Tâche Grand Cru. 70% whole cluster fermentation. Ripe, dark red fruit aromas with spice and earthiness. Big, rich dark red fruit flavors; full bodied concentration; terrific freshness and supple, powerful tannins, but well balanced. Will age gracefully 15 to 20 years easily.
2015 Domaine Arnoux-Lachaux,Clos-de-Vougeot Grand Cru: Made from vines high on the hill near the old Château itself. Fresh, pure red fruit aromas open to similar flavors. Moderate to full concentration; fine, ripe tannins, fresh, fruity finish. Drink over 10 to 20 years.
2015 Domaine Arnoux-Lachaux, Echézeaux Grand Cru: Made from vines in limestone and iron rich soils. 100% whole cluster fermentation. Aged in mostly new oak. Terrific, seductive red fruit aromas with spicy notes; pure, transparent red fruit flavors; tremendous, fresh acidity; rich, supple concentration; fine, elegant tannins; a long, vibrant finish. Drink over 10 to 20 years. Highly Recommended.
2015 Domaine Arnoux-Lachaux, Latricières Chambertin Grand Cru: Made from a combination of 60 year old vines and younger vines near the top of the vineyard with a cooler microclimate and plenty of limestone. 100% whole cluster fermentation. Understated red fruit aromas with spicy notes. Pure, ripe red fruit flavors; medium concentration; pronounced, fresh acidity; tight, fine tannins; Lovely, tense finish. A refined wine requiring 15+ years to knit completely.
2015 Domaine Arnoux-Lachaux,Vosne-Romanée “Les Suchots” 1er Cru: Made from very old vines, some over 90 years old and planted by Charles’ grandfather. A higher percentage of new oak for aging and all whole clusters for fermentation. Has spicy, dark red fruit aromas with floral notes. Firm, pure dark red fruit with full depth, and concentration, yet well balanced with freshness and fine, firm tannins. Will require long patience in the cellar, but the beautiful structure will last.
2015 Domaine Arnoux-Lachaux,Vosne-Romanée “Aux Reignots” 1er Cru: This vineyard holds a special spot for Charles. It sits above La Romanée-Conti and La Romanée on a steep hillside with meager, stony soils. “It makes a very tender, pure wine with great tension and a focus on red fruits,” he notes. It cannot be plowed by tractor, so the domaine manages a very high canopy where pruning has been curtailed. “We are attempting to lift the terroir a bit further through what we know for the moment,” he adds. It is a great experiment for now. The 2015 wine has marvelous transparent red fruit aromas with spicy notes. Sweet, pure red fruit with terrific fresh undertones that lift and frame the wine beautifully. Firm, very fine tannins, and a long, resounding pure fruit finish. A wine of pleasure and fine emotion built for the ages. 2015 Domaine Arnoux-Lachaux, Romanée-Saint-Vivant Grand Cru: All of the domaine’s savoir-faire and hard work comes to fruition in this marvelous, complete wine. 100% whole cluster fermentation. 80% new oak for aging. A big, spicy nose of black and red fruits. Round, ripe red fruit flavors with tremendous depth. Plenty of fresh acidity and mineral tones with fine, smooth tannins. Fresh, seamless finish. It could drink now with pleasure, but will also last for decades.